An urban heat island, UHI is a metropolitan area that’s a lot warmer than
the rural areas surrounding it. Heat is created by energy from all the people,
cars buses and trains in big cities. The primary reason of UHI is modification
of land and the secondary reason is waste heat produced by machines, Thermal
oxidizers, AC and electrical appliances. When house shops and industrial
buildings are constructed close together it creates UHI. Buildings materials
are usually very good at insulating or holding in heat. This insulation makes
the area around buildings warmer.

Waste heat also contributes to a UHI. People and their tools such as cars
factories are always burning off energy, whether they are driving or just
living day to day lives. The energy people burn off usually escapes in the form
of heat.

Objects of different colours reflect varying amounts of light. Surfaces
with a greater albedo sun’s energy. Darker objects tend to absorb more
radiation and therefore heat up more quickly, darker materials like concrete
and asphalt, they absorb comparatively more energy than the surrounding,
lighter coloured and vegetated countryside.

Night time temperatures in UHI remain high. This is because buildings,
sidewalks and parking lots block heat coming from the ground from rising into
the cold night sky. Because the heat is trapped on lower levels, the
temperature is warmer

Cities tend to drain surface water quickly into sewers, where it is
trapped and cannot evaporate ground water drains though the soil and is
transpired by plants. The evaporation of water in rural areas adds a cooling
effect to the local climate. UHI contributes to global warming the most recent
climate change pattern that includes the global warming of Earth’s Temperature

Water quality also suffers when warm water from UHI ends up flowing into
local streams It stress the native species that have adopted to life in cooler
aquatic environment.

 Effects of UHI :

1.Increased energy consumption

Increased
temperatures during summer in cities amplify energy demand for air
conditioning. Studies reveal that electricity demand  for air conditioning or cooling increases in
the ranges of 1.5 to 2 percent for every 1°F (0.6°C) increase in air
temperatures (ranges of 68 to 77°F (20 to 25°C), implying that the community
requires about 5 to 10 percent more electricity demand to cater for the urban
heat effect.

This
means the increased demands for cooling or air condition during summer
contributes to higher energy bills. Also, during exacerbated periods of urban
heat islands, the resulting demand for air conditioning can overload systems
which can lead to power outages and blackouts.

2. Elevated greenhouse gas
emissions and air pollution

As
explained earlier, urban heat island (UHI) raises electricity demand during
summer. As a result, power plants have to supply the needed extra energy and
since they rely on 
fossil fuel for energy production, there is
an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and 
air pollutants. The main greenhouse gases and pollutants include
carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide , sulphur dioxide , nitrogen oxides ,
particulate matter and Mercury (Hg).

Increased
greenhouse gases cause 
global warming and climate change while the pollutants
negatively impact human health as well as the 
decline of air quality. Sometimes the UHI can also lead
to the formation of 
ground-level ozone and acid rain. Research shows that high UHI
correlates with increased levels and 
accumulation of air pollutants at night, affecting the
next day’s air quality.

3.Secondary
impacts on weather and climate

Besides
the high temperature increases, urban heat island (UHIs) can bring forth
secondary effects on the local weather and climate. This includes changes of
local wind patterns, formation of fog and clouds, precipitation rates and
humidity. The unusual heat caused by UHI contributes to a more intense upward
wind movement that can stimulate thunderstorm and precipitation activity.

Furthermore,
urban heat island (UHI) creates a local low-pressure area where cool air from
its adjacent areas converges that induces the formation of clouds and rain.
This increases total rainfall rates within cities. These changes may impact
growing seasons within cities, especially by prolonging the growth of plants
and crops.

Solution to
UHI

Looking towards current scenario
and environmental factors, Central Park Resorts planned the correct ratio of
built up area and open spaces, developed green infrastructure &created a
comfortable environment. The project has been designed to create a resort-like
ambience with vast greenery, beautifully landscaped gardens and water bodies.
20 acres of planned lush green area isthe core of the project,
which
incorporates various water bodies and variety of flora playing a major role in maintaining
the right proportion of fresh air to breathe and helps in settling down the
impurities within the condominium. With ample amount of fresh air, temperatures
are lowered as well as a serene view

Some of the
adaptation strategies are:

  1. Central Park has adopted a unique approach to
    combat the deteriorating air quality by installing antismog cannons at Central
    Park Resorts in Sohna Road, Gurgaon. Central Park with this became
    the first developer in India to install theses specialized machines, to provide
    its residents with healthy and clean air. The developer has also taken this
    initiative forth at Central Park Flower Valley, their global premium township.

Created
particularly for dusty environments, this dust suppression system uses high
pressure water fogging with turbo airflow, which further creates very fine
water droplets. As a result, these tiny droplets absorb even the smallest dust
particles in the air to improve the overall air quality. Within Central Park Resorts,
16 anti-smog cannons are installed on the top of each tower,  Owning a favourable design layout with
encompassing tower, mist  falls
strategically from all sides. While anti-smog cannons are installed successfully,
they now  reduce the pollution in
atmosphere by approx. 80% for a certain period of time, depending upon other
factors involved such as wind velocity etc.

2. Zero
vehicles on ground surface policy reduces the unnecessary idling of cars trucks
and buses helps prevent children and senior citizens from being exposed to
diesel exhaust andreduces green-house gas emission.

3.Rainwater
harvesting system across entire complex

 Traditionally, the focus on stormwater
management has been to quickly discharge the peak flow into stormwater drains
or encourage infiltration. However, by 
harvesting rainwater, storing it, and allowing it to
evaporate from surfaces, not only helps to level out the peak flow of storm
events, it also plays a vital part in recharging the ground water levels.

4.Wind
Tunnel Effect

The way Central Park has designed the property
has a good flow of windas the
typical design of the
buildings creates a low-pressure region causing the wind to move faster.

5.Huge plantation – over 50,000 plantations including plants,
shrubs, bushes, creepers, etc in the resorts are planted over last 7 years.
These are added every rainy season.
The landscaped gardens at
the Central Park Resorts act as the lungs for the complex by purifying the
ambient air. Also, the greens surrounding the towers at regular intervals help
bring down the overall temperature within the complex. 

Central Park is
committed towards building a sustainable tomorrow for all and wants to be an
active contributor in maintaining ecological balance. Central Park truly
believes in offering a premium quality of life through open green spaces full
of light, clean air and clean water. In line with this, several initiatives
have been taken by the organization towards corporate social responsibility,
including a Plantation Drive at Central Park Flower Valley that was a grand
success. The plantation drive was a small step from our end to bring more
like-minded individuals and communities to join hands for a greener and
healthier tomorrow. As a responsible realty developer, Central Park believes
that a healthier environment is central to ensuring ‘Quality of Life’ for
residents.

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