An urban heat island, UHI is a metropolitan area that’s a lot warmer than the rural areas surrounding it. Heat is created by energy from all the people, cars buses and trains in big cities. The primary reason of UHI is modification of land and the secondary reason is waste heat produced by machines, Thermal oxidizers, AC and electrical appliances. When house shops and industrial buildings are constructed close together it creates UHI. Buildings materials are usually very good at insulating or holding in heat. This insulation makes the area around buildings warmer.
Waste heat also contributes to a UHI. People and their tools such as cars factories are always burning off energy, whether they are driving or just living day to day lives. The energy people burn off usually escapes in the form of heat.
Objects of different colours reflect varying amounts of light. Surfaces with a greater albedo sun’s energy. Darker objects tend to absorb more radiation and therefore heat up more quickly, darker materials like concrete and asphalt, they absorb comparatively more energy than the surrounding, lighter coloured and vegetated countryside.
Night time temperatures in UHI remain high. This is because buildings, sidewalks and parking lots block heat coming from the ground from rising into the cold night sky. Because the heat is trapped on lower levels, the temperature is warmer
Cities tend to drain surface water quickly into sewers, where it is trapped and cannot evaporate ground water drains though the soil and is transpired by plants. The evaporation of water in rural areas adds a cooling effect to the local climate. UHI contributes to global warming the most recent climate change pattern that includes the global warming of Earth’s Temperature
Water quality also suffers when warm water from UHI ends up flowing into local streams It stress the native species that have adopted to life in cooler aquatic environment.
Effects of UHI :
1.Increased energy consumption
Increased temperatures during summer in cities amplify energy demand for air conditioning. Studies reveal that electricity demand for air conditioning or cooling increases in the ranges of 1.5 to 2 percent for every 1°F (0.6°C) increase in air temperatures (ranges of 68 to 77°F (20 to 25°C), implying that the community requires about 5 to 10 percent more electricity demand to cater for the urban heat effect.
This means the increased demands for cooling or air condition during summer contributes to higher energy bills. Also, during exacerbated periods of urban heat islands, the resulting demand for air conditioning can overload systems which can lead to power outages and blackouts.
2. Elevated greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution
As explained earlier, urban heat island (UHI) raises electricity demand during summer. As a result, power plants have to supply the needed extra energy and since they rely on fossil fuel for energy production, there is an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. The main greenhouse gases and pollutants include carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide , sulphur dioxide , nitrogen oxides , particulate matter and Mercury (Hg).
Increased greenhouse gases cause global warming and climate change while the pollutants negatively impact human health as well as the decline of air quality. Sometimes the UHI can also lead to the formation of ground-level ozone and acid rain. Research shows that high UHI correlates with increased levels and accumulation of air pollutants at night, affecting the next day’s air quality.
3.Secondary impacts on weather and climate
Besides the high temperature increases, urban heat island (UHIs) can bring forth secondary effects on the local weather and climate. This includes changes of local wind patterns, formation of fog and clouds, precipitation rates and humidity. The unusual heat caused by UHI contributes to a more intense upward wind movement that can stimulate thunderstorm and precipitation activity.
Furthermore, urban heat island (UHI) creates a local low-pressure area where cool air from its adjacent areas converges that induces the formation of clouds and rain. This increases total rainfall rates within cities. These changes may impact growing seasons within cities, especially by prolonging the growth of plants and crops.
Solution to UHI
Looking towards current scenario and environmental factors, Central Park Resorts planned the correct ratio of built up area and open spaces, developed green infrastructure &created a comfortable environment. The project has been designed to create a resort-like ambience with vast greenery, beautifully landscaped gardens and water bodies. 20 acres of planned lush green area isthe core of the project,which incorporates various water bodies and variety of flora playing a major role in maintaining the right proportion of fresh air to breathe and helps in settling down the impurities within the condominium. With ample amount of fresh air, temperatures are lowered as well as a serene view
Some of the adaptation strategies are:
- Central Park has adopted a unique approach to combat the deteriorating air quality by installing antismog cannons at Central Park Resorts in Sohna Road, Gurgaon. Central Park with this became the first developer in India to install theses specialized machines, to provide its residents with healthy and clean air. The developer has also taken this initiative forth at Central Park Flower Valley, their global premium township.
Created particularly for dusty environments, this dust suppression system uses high pressure water fogging with turbo airflow, which further creates very fine water droplets. As a result, these tiny droplets absorb even the smallest dust particles in the air to improve the overall air quality. Within Central Park Resorts, 16 anti-smog cannons are installed on the top of each tower, Owning a favourable design layout with encompassing tower, mist falls strategically from all sides. While anti-smog cannons are installed successfully, they now reduce the pollution in atmosphere by approx. 80% for a certain period of time, depending upon other factors involved such as wind velocity etc.
2. Zero vehicles on ground surface policy reduces the unnecessary idling of cars trucks and buses helps prevent children and senior citizens from being exposed to diesel exhaust andreduces green-house gas emission.
3.Rainwater harvesting system across entire complex
Traditionally, the focus on stormwater management has been to quickly discharge the peak flow into stormwater drains or encourage infiltration. However, by harvesting rainwater, storing it, and allowing it to evaporate from surfaces, not only helps to level out the peak flow of storm events, it also plays a vital part in recharging the ground water levels.
4.Wind Tunnel Effect
The way Central Park has designed the property has a good flow of windas the typical design of the buildings creates a low-pressure region causing the wind to move faster.
5.Huge plantation – over 50,000 plantations including plants, shrubs, bushes, creepers, etc in the resorts are planted over last 7 years. These are added every rainy season.The landscaped gardens at the Central Park Resorts act as the lungs for the complex by purifying the ambient air. Also, the greens surrounding the towers at regular intervals help bring down the overall temperature within the complex.
Central Park is committed towards building a sustainable tomorrow for all and wants to be an active contributor in maintaining ecological balance. Central Park truly believes in offering a premium quality of life through open green spaces full of light, clean air and clean water. In line with this, several initiatives have been taken by the organization towards corporate social responsibility, including a Plantation Drive at Central Park Flower Valley that was a grand success. The plantation drive was a small step from our end to bring more like-minded individuals and communities to join hands for a greener and healthier tomorrow. As a responsible realty developer, Central Park believes that a healthier environment is central to ensuring ‘Quality of Life’ for residents.